The White House
The White House is the official residence of the President of the United States,
recognized worldwide as a symbol of the prestige of the presidency. Built between
1792 and 1800, the sprawling 132-room mansion has been used as a home by every President
since John Adams. The East Wing of the White House principally serves as offices
for the First Lady and her staff. The First Family's quarters, located on the second
and third floor of the historic White House, provide them with privacy and comfort
away from the public spotlight. The West Wing is home to the President's office
and those of his top staff.
For more than 200 years, the White House has been more than just the home of the
Presidents and their families. Throughout the world, it is recognized as the
symbol of the President, of the President's administration, and of the United States.
About the Building
For two hundred years, the White House has stood as a symbol of the Presidency,
the United States government, and the American people. Its history, and the
history of the nation's capital, began when President George Washington signed an
Act of Congress in December of 1790 declaring that the federal government would
reside in a district "not exceeding ten miles square… on the river Potomac."
President Washington, together with city planner Pierre L’Enfant, chose the
site for the new residence, which is now 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. As preparations
began for the new federal city, a competition was held to find a builder of the
"President’s House." Nine proposals were submitted, and Irish-born
architect James Hoban won a gold medal for his practical and handsome design.
Construction began when the first cornerstone was laid in October of 1792.
Although President Washington oversaw the construction of the house, he never lived
in it. It was not until 1800, when the White House was nearly completed, that
its first residents, President John Adams and his wife, Abigail, moved in.
Since that time, each President has made his own changes and additions. The
White House is, after all, the President’s private home. It is also
the only private residence of a head of state that is open to the public, free of
The White House has a unique and fascinating history. It survived a fire at
the hands of the British in 1814 (during the war of 1812) and another fire in the
West Wing in 1929, while Herbert Hoover was President. Throughout much of
Harry S. Truman’s presidency, the interior of the house, with the exception
of the third floor, was completely gutted and renovated while the Trumans lived
at Blair House, right across Pennsylvania Avenue. Nonetheless, the exterior
stone walls are those first put in place when the White House was constructed two
Presidents can express their individual style in how they decorate some parts of
the house and in how they receive the public during their stay. Thomas Jefferson
held the first Inaugural open house in 1805. Many of those who attended the
swearing-in ceremony at the U.S. Capitol simply followed him home, where he greeted
them in the Blue Room. President Jefferson also opened the house for public
tours, and it has remained open, except during wartime, ever since. In addition,
he welcomed visitors to annual receptions on New Year’s Day and on the Fourth
of July. In 1829, a horde of 20,000 Inaugural callers forced President Andrew
Jackson to flee to the safety of a hotel while, on the lawn, aides filled washtubs
with orange juice and whiskey to lure the mob out of the mud-tracked White House.
After Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, Inaugural crowds became far too large
for the White House to accommodate them comfortably. However, not until Grover
Cleveland’s first presidency did this unsafe practice change. He held
a presidential review of the troops from a flag-draped grandstand built in front
of the White House. This procession evolved into the official Inaugural parade
we know today. Receptions on New Year’s Day and the Fourth of July continued
to be held until the early 1930s.
There are 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, and 6 levels in the Residence. There are
also 412 doors, 147 windows, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3 elevators.
At various times in history, the White House has been known as the "President's
Palace," the "President's House," and the "Executive Mansion."
President Theodore Roosevelt officially gave the White House its current name in
Presidential Firsts while in office... President James Polk (1845-49) was the first
President to have his photograph taken... President Theodore Roosevelt (1901-09)
was not only the first President to ride in an automobile, but also the first President
to travel outside the country when he visited Panama... President Franklin Roosevelt
(1933-45) was the first President to ride in an airplane.
With five full-time chefs, the White House kitchen is able to serve dinner to as
many as 140 guests and hors d'oeuvres to more than 1,000.
The White House requires 570 gallons of paint to cover its outside surface.
For recreation, the White House has a variety of facilities available to its residents,
including a tennis court, jogging track, swimming pool, movie theater, and bowling